Aust to get new nuke reactor

Environmental groups have condemned the decision to grant the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) an operating licence for the A$330 million research reactor.


The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) gave the green light to ANSTO to operate the Open Pool Australian Light-water (OPAL) research reactor at Lucas Heights, in Sydney’s south.

ARPANSA has imposed strict conditions on ANSTO’s licence, including the need to provide regular safety and security reviews.

The head of Australia’s nuclear watchdog John Loy said the licence was subject to conditions already laid out in existing legislation, but he also has imposed some extra conditions on ANSTO to provide periodic safety and security reviews.

The safety reviews will have to be carried out every 10 years.

“It is inevitable that in the first two years of operation much will be learned about operating the reactor and it is important that this experience is fully incorporated into ongoing safety management,” Dr Loy said in a statement.

“Similarly the operation of the arrangements for physical security should be reviewed at this time.”

Dr Loy said there had been a range of concerns about the reactor raised by the public, including worries about the disposal of spent reactor fuel and other radioactive waste.

However he said he was satisfied with ANSTO’s arrangements with the US and France, which have agreed to take waste from theSydney reactor.

He also said he had taken into account the federal government’s commitment to building a waste management facility in the Northern Territory.

Decision angers environmentalists

But green groups and local residents say the safety and environmental risks associated with the new reactor are too high and it should not be allowed to operate.

Australian Conservation Foundation nuclear campaigner Dave

Sweeney said it was irresponsible for the facility to start operating amid a battle over the federal government’s plan to build a nuclear waste dump in the Northern Territory.

“We believe for the federal regulator to licence the operation of what will be by far the largest generator of radioactive waste in Australia before there’s an agreed management of that waste, is a deeply flawed decision,” he said.

There are also concerns about giving the go-ahead to the new reactor just a month after four accidents occurred in one week at the existing Lucas Heights nuclear reactor.

“That should have been a wake up call about how quickly things can go wrong with nuclear reactors,” Greenpeace campaigns manager

Danny Kennedy said.

“Unfortunately, decision makers don’t seem to be listening. It’s extremely reckless to introduce a nuclear reactor into a major growth corridor of our largest city.”

Local residents upset

ANSTO says the new reactor meets the highest possible standards imposed upon the nuclear industry.

“Not only will OPAL increase ANSTO’s capacity to supply Australia and the region with critically important radiopharmaceuticals, it will provide world leading capability for our scientists to apply nuclear research to such areas as biotechnology, food and molecular biology, nanotechnology, health, environmental management processes and engineering,” ANSTO executive director Ian Smith.

“This research will result in tangible social and economic benefits for Australia,” Mr Smith said.

However local residents have accused the nuclear watchdog of ignoring the concerns they outlined in 11,000 submissions opposing the new reactor.

People Against a Nuclear Reactor (PANR) spokeswoman Genevieve Kelly said residents were worried that there was no adequate emergency plan in place in the event of a major accident or terrorist attack.

She said residents’ fears were compounded by the fact there had been no independent assessment of whether the new reactor should be allowed to operate.

“It is like having Dracula in charge of the blood bank,” she said. “No one with any independence is appointed to protect the public in these matters. The federal government regulates itself.”

COAG agrees to national reform

In other developments, Victoria, NSW, the ACT and Tasmania have agreed to look at synchronising the start of daylight saving each year.


Mr Howard said all governments agreed to support a bid, if there was one, for Australia to host the 2018 soccer World Cup.

The issues surrounding a compensation fund set up to allow James Hardie to pay victims of asbestos-related diseases would continue to be discussed, he said.

But the prime minister said the Commonwealth’s position – of opposing tax deductibility for the fund – was still in place.

“This has been another very constructive COAG meeting at which an enormous amount has been achieved in a spirit of cooperation and a desire to get practical results for the Australian people,” Mr Howard said.

“The major outcome has been agreement on a huge, indeed mammoth, national reform agenda which will cover the important areas of human capital, as well as issues of regulation, red tape, other matters touching on infrastructure.

“It will particularly deal with early childhood issues.”

Victorian Premier Steve Bracks said COAG welcomed agreement on the reform agenda but said the meeting had failed to move forward on stem cell research.

Mr Bracks had urged the federal government to reconsider plans to continue a ban on human embryo research, saying prohibiting therapeutic cloning was hampering the hunt for cures to serious diseases and holding back researchers.

He said Victoria reserved the right to consider its position in moving on the next wave of reform in stem cell research.

Mr Howard appeared to back away from earlier threats made by the commonwealth that states that go it alone on human embryo and stem cell research may be financially penalised by Canberra.

Meanwhile Labor leaders have used the COAG meeting to taunt Treasurer Peter Costello over the Liberal leadership, saying they would rather work with John Howard as prime minister.

Premiers and chief ministers also criticised Mr Costello’s suggestion that economic powers be transferred from the states to the commonwealth.

Kovco room cleaned before test

Details of the investigation of the Baghdad barracks where Pte Kovco was shot in the head emerged today when military police investigators appeared before the board of inquiry (BOI) being held at Army Land Headquarters in Sydney.


Military investigators and New South Wales Police forensic experts were called in to examine the room, which Pte Kovco shared with two other soldiers, after the shooting on April 21 this year.

But one of the military investigators, Sergeant Stephen Hession, told the inquiry that shortly after he finished examining the room, already days after the shooting, cleaners were brought in.

As part of his investigation, Sgt Hession took photos and video footage of the room and bagged up various items, including Pte Kovco’s 9mm Browning pistol, with which he is believed to have been shot.

He then handed over control of the room – which had the pistol, a rifle and other items belonging to Pte Kovco and his roommates – to a platoon commander.

While New South Wales Police were on their way to Baghdad to examine the room, it was being cleaned.

Sgt Hession said he didn’t know when he handed over control of the room that police wanted to examine it, and when he found out moves were made to stop the cleaning.

“Unfortunately, that was two to three hours after the room had been handed over to them (platoon commander) and cleaning had commenced,” he said.

“I was under the direction of my captain … at no stage did he suggest to me that NSW (police) was going to be involved.”

No tests on clothes

The inquiry also heard, from Sgt Hession, that no tests were carried out on the clothes Pte Kovco wore on the day he was shot because they were destroyed at the US military hospital in Baghdad where he was treated.

Clothes and equipment belonging to Pte Kovco’s two roommates also weren’t tested, despite the men being in the room when the gun went discharged.

“Unfortunately … both soldiers had been allowed to wash their clothes and themselves and their bodies,” Sgt Hession said.

Sergeant Hession decided not to carry out any gunshot residue or DNA tests on anything in Pte Kovco’s room, including what he believed was blood stains on the carpet. He also told the inquiry that he might have moved Pte Kovco’s gun while he was examining the room and that up to five other soldiers could have been allowed inside before his examination began.

Documents and a soft toy were also removed from the room before Sgt Hession got to the scene.

Coaching denied

Sergeant Hession also denied coaching Pte Kovco’s colleagues about what to say in their official statements, which were taken approximately nine days after the shooting.

He said while there was “a considerable amount of templating” in the statements, most of the similar comments related to the soldiers’ training and not the shooting.

The inquiry continues.

Hundreds evacuate Lebanon

On Monday night, 86 Australians were bused to Syria then onto Jordan and the Federal Government is hopes to evacuate more by bus on Tuesday.


Mr Howard estimated that 4,000 Australians had registered with the embassy in Beirut and said the government is doing everything it can to help Australians wanting to get out.

“The fighting is getting heavier, it’s more dangerous the alternative exit routes and I ask people to bear with us in a situation that is very traumatic for them but extremely challenging,” Mr Howard said.

The Foreign Minister Alexander Downer says he hopes more bus loads can leave

Lebanon and another 600 people could be ferried to Cyprus by a chartered ship later this week.

One of the Australians evacuated from Lebanon says it was a long and hard journey to safety.

Levon Demirian, from the Armenian Sydney dance troupe stranded in Beirut, said it took 17 hours to get to Amman.

“It was very tiring especially for the young ones and the old ones that we have but for the freedom’s sake we were actually happy for it,” Mr Demirian told ABC radio.

Mr Downer could not confirm reports of any Australians being killed in Lebanon.

An Australian man who fled the bloodshed told the ABC last night he believes Australians have died in clashes near the southern Lebanese town of Aitaroun.

But Mr Downer told the Nine Network his department has been unable to confirm the report.

Foreigners flee

In the first mass evacuation by sea to neighbouring Cyprus, an Italian vessel carrying more than 300 people docked in the port of Larnaca.

The Italian destroyer carrying is the first of a growing flotilla of vessels sent by foreign governments to evacuate worried nationals.

Many of those aboard the vessel were children, one of them an infant only a few days old, Italian diplomats said.

According to the BBC, Britain dispatched two warships in preparation for a possible larger-scale evacuation. The British Foreign Office estimates there are about 10,000 Britons in Lebanon.

The British Foreign Office minister Kim Howells told parliament that the Royal Navy could be faced with “the biggest evacuation since Dunkirk”, to evacuate stranded British citizens from Lebanon.

Dunkirk involved some 330,000 soldiers being evacuated by sea from France in 1940.

The country has already evacuated about 40 citizens out of Beirut by helicopter on Sunday night.

The United States meanwhile was preparing to help potentially thousands of nationals flee.

Harrowing stories

Evacuees arriving in Cyprus have told of their experiences in Lebanon amid the Israeli air raids.

“There were a lot of bombs and we were very scared,” said 14-year-old Italian national Tamora Hassoun.

“We had to sleep in the embassy before we could get out of Lebanon,” she said. “It was scary but I feel safe now.”

Chady Chatila, 36, also Italian, said she felt “very tired” after travelling for more than 30 hours.

“We could see the bombs and we could see the smoke rising from the Italian embassy,” she said. “The bombs were getting closer, the children were crying and I thought we would never get out.”

Officials have reported some 186 of the evacuees aboard the Italian destroyer Luigi Durand de la Penne were Italian, but they also included 58 Lebanese and 49 Swedes.

Also aboard were 16 Canadians, six Greeks, five Egyptians, five South Africans, three Argentines, two Americans, two Filipinos, two French, one Ghanaian, one Nepali, one Russian, one Swiss and one Ukrainian.

Foreign governments have been scrambling to evacuate nationals from Lebanon since Israeli warplanes bombed Beirut international airport and the main highway to Syria on Thursday, largely cutting off the country from the outside world.

Lebanon evacuations gain pace

Thousands of foreign passport holders waited to flee by sea to the Cyprus port of Larnaca as Israel agreed to arrangements with several Western governments for a major sea evacuation.


A senior army commander said 20 boats are going to be able to leave Lebanon on Wednesday.

Overnight some 800 evacuees arrived at Larnaca on board a Greek ferry chartered by the French government. The Iera Patra was awaiting authorisation to make a return trip, as the evacuees were flown on to Paris.

France also announced that it is sending a navy support ship the Mistral, capable of taking on board 4,000 evacuees, in addition to two other vessels expected to arrive off Beirut Wednesday or Thursday.

A British warship carrying evacuees left Beirut for Cyprus on Tuesday in the first stage of the large-scale rescue of an expected 5,000 British nationals in the coming days.

The destroyer HMS Gloucester took 180 priority evacuees towards the safety of British military bases on Cyprus.

British Prime Minister Tony Blair is hopeful that British forces would be able to evacuate 5,000 nationals by the end of the week.

“We are going for far bigger numbers tomorrow,” James Watt, Britain’s ambassador to Lebanon, said on the Beirut dockside in comments broadcast live on BBC television.

The United States meanwhile has announced the dispatch of a navy flotilla to help in the evacuation process.

Fears for trapped Australians

A ferry chartered by the Australian government is due to arrive in Lebanon Wednesday to evacuate 300 Australians to Turkey, while another 100 are set to be shipped out on a Canadian vessel.

But Australian Foreign Minister Alexander Downer said an increasing number of foreign vessels in the port at Beirut was creating its own set of problems.

“To add to the problems, the port is now starting to get quite congested in Beirut, so the logistics of managing that for everybody are not going to be very easy,” he told ABC radio.

Meanwhile fears are held for the safety of hundreds of Australian families in southern Lebanon, which is bearing the brunt of Israeli attacks.

Authorities say they have no safe way of getting in to help these Australians without a ceasefire, which Israel has refused.

“We’ve been in contact with quite a few of them, of course many of them haven’t been able to get through, they are facing shortages of food and water,” Australia’s ambassador to Lebanon, Lyndall Sachs, told ABC radio.

She said only a ceasefire would allow safe evacuations, saying the bombardment of southern Lebanon put the Australians at huge risk.

“Worst case scenario is that we will have Australians killed or injured,” she said.

Nearly 200 Australians have already made their way out of Lebanon by bus in the past two days, escaping to Syria and then Jordan.

However, thousands more are waiting to escape, and some claim Australia is not doing enough to keep its citizens informed.

More than 7,000 Australians are registered with the embassy in Lebanon. There are also an estimated 25,000 dual nationals in the country, some of whom are registered with the embassy.

The government is fending off claims it is not doing enough to help its nationals, or sufficiently reassuring them they will be rescued.

Rebecca Akar, who had been holidaying in Beirut, said Australian consular officials in Lebanon had given only scant details of the evacuation plan.

“The sky’s covered in black smoke and we’re just waiting, really, to find out when we can evacuate,” she told ABC radio.

Air and road

Thousands of foreign nationals were also continuing to escape by car and bus over land to Damascus, despite warnings that the road has been targeted several times by Israeli warplanes.

The United States flew 120 citizens out of Beirut on Tuesday as scores more Americans criticised their government’s slow response to their ordeal under Israeli bombardment.

The first flight carrying about 450 French nationals, who evacuated Lebanon for Cyprus, arrived at Paris’ Charles de Gaulle airport late Tuesday.

Also later that day, a Belgian army plane arrived in Brussels from Cyprus with 136 people including 45 children who fled Lebanon by ferry. All were Europeans except for about two dozen Americans.

Call for ceasefire

Sam Ajram, an electrician from Marseille who was in Lebanon on holiday with his wife and two children, said there should be a partial ceasefire to enable people to travel to Beirut for the evacuation.

“A partial ceasefire needs to be negotiated so people in the south or in the Bekaa (region) can reach Beirut,” Mr Ajram said.

He went on to explain that he had friends in Bekaa “who are cut off from the world.”

The US State Department estimates some 25,000 US nationals in Lebanon; France says it has 20,000 and Britain 22,000. Many of these have dual nationality, and it was not clear how many want to leave.

Other countries with large numbers of nationals in Lebanon include Canada, which has 40,000, Australia with 25,000, and the Philippines, which has 30,000 workers there.

UN withdrawal

The United Nations has announced the evacuation of several hundred non-essential staff from Lebanon because of the ongoing violence.

It says 445 UN personnel have been evacuated following Tuesday’s departure of a first batch of UN dependents and visitors from Beirut.

The world body says some 130 staff and their dependents remain in Lebanon in a safe area and may be relocated or evacuated.

Second DNA found on Kovco gun

NSW Police homicide squad detective inspector Wayne Hayes told the inquiry test swabs on the 9mm pistol revealed DNA from another, unknown, person on the gun’s trigger, slide and grip.


Det Insp Hayes said he would like to fly to Baghdad as soon as possible to take voluntary DNA samples from Pte Kovco’s two roommates, who were with him when he was shot on April 21 this year.

The inquiry has heard previously that the two roommates were in the tiny barracks they shared with Pte Kovco when the gun went off.

However, they have both told the inquiry they did not see the gun discharge.

Det Insp Hayes said DNA tests had already been carried out on military police and NSW police officers who had handled the gun with gloves on, but none of their genetic material was found on the weapon.

He said it was possible that other soldiers could have unknowingly touched the gun after the shooting while they were trying to save Pte Kovco’s life, or that they dripped perspiration onto the gun.

Another possibility was that Pte Kovco’s two roommates handled the gun when they were allowed back into the room to collect some of their belongings, he said.

Det Insp Hayes said based on photographs of the shooting scene, it was clear the gun had been moved at some stage.

He said that while there could be up to 30 soldiers needing to be DNA tested, he believed priority should be given to Pte Kovco’s roommates and two other soldiers, none of whom can be named.

The test would probably take a maximum of two days, with swabs being sent back to Australia for analysis and results produced within two weeks, he said.

Aboriginal ‘showcase’ scheme

Mr Brough told an indigenous business conference in Sydney that such a scheme could employ Aborigines from remote and regional communities, which had an excess of fit and able underemployed workers.


The minister said he was meeting with Tourism Training Australia consultant Bill Galvin to explore the idea.

Mr Brough said one scheme he had in mind was to have Aborigines from remote communities working at the reception of hotels such as Sydney’s Hilton.

“We will take young people, who are selected because they want to see a change in their own lives, want an opportunity, who may not have the educational qualifications yet, from those regional communities,” Mr Brough said.

“We will put them front-of-house in five-star hotels throughout Australia. There will be a lot of challenges with that, but it does two things.

“It provides opportunity for those people. It also provides an opportunity for Australia to showcase our first Australians, and that is exactly what tourists come here to see.

“When they turn up to our major tourist attractions they don’t see many of our first Australians. We can open up opportunities both ways,” he said.

The minister said he wanted to expand a program started by Queensland Aboriginal leader Noel Pearson that sent people away from remote communities to work interstate.

Mr Brough said those workers were given a one-way fare to work on farms where they were mentored and taught skills.

Mr Brough said he was searching for opportunities to expand that program in the agriculture and tourism industries.

Aust defence staff for Beirut

Logistic experts are among the defence personnel who will work with Department of Foreign Affairs staff, as frustration increases for Australians trapped in the country.


It comes after an Australian chartered ship from Turkey was gazumped by another country on Wednesday, leaving hundreds of people waiting at Beirut’s port.

However, security fears over the port meant the ship never even arrived.

Australians evacuated to Cyprus

Australian officials had appealed to Britain to evacuate priority cases on navy warships after the double-booking of the Turkish ferry.

They now hope a British naval destroyer which had arrived in Cyprus was also transporting Australian citizens evacuated from Lebanon.

It’s believed a number of Australians were aboard the HMS Gloucester which had docked in the Cypriot port of Limassol with 513 evacuees on board.

But there’s been no breakdown of the nationalities aboard Gloucester which was making its second evacuation run from Beirut.

Earlier there were a number of Australians among an estimated 300 evacuees from Lebanon though aboard a British navy destroyer which docked safely in Cyprus late Wednesday.

The HMS York docked just after 9 pm Wednesday local time (4 am Thursday AEST) in the Cypriot port of Limassol unloading men women and children including small babies.

They have been taken from the ship by bus into a nearby hanger for processing.

Australian consular officials were waiting to greet the Australian refugees coming off the ship but it’s not yet known how many Australians were on board.

Journey home

The evacuees will be taken to the nearby Royal Air Force base at Akrotiri where they’ll be given the option of flying to the UK on planes chartered by the British government.

Those who don’t wish to make that trip can stay in Cyprus but will have to find their own accommodation and make their own travel plans.

Another British naval destroyer HMS Gloucester is expected to arrive in the early hours of Thursday morning local time carrying another 650 civilians from Lebanon.

More ships chartered

Australian officials are now trying to find places for those stranded Australian evacuees on British, Canadian and US ships.

They are also hoping more will make their way out on Wednesday, with a Greek naval landing ship tipped to be used to move more out.

Foreign Minister Alexander Downer said solid contracts had been reached to use chartered ships to move more than 2,000 people out of the country over Friday, Saturday and Sunday.

Prime Minister John Howard has spoken to his Canadian counterpart about possible spaces on its naval vessels, however Mr Downer said it was unlikely these ships could get into Beirut.

There are also grave concerns for up to 400 Australians who are thought to be trapped in southern Lebanon.

Mr Downer said there was nothing Australia could do to help these people, offering just a few words of advice to them.

“Stay put, but make sure you keep well away from Hezbollah or any Hezbollah infrastructure,” he said.

Claims investigated

Meanwhile, the Foreign Affairs Department is investigating claims that Australians trapped in Lebanon are being asked to pay a thousand dollars to be evacuated.

According to the ABC, an Adelaide woman has reportedly been told that evacuees would have to pay to get on a ferry or bus arranged by the Australian embassy.

A Foreign Affairs spokesman said Australians should not be paying a fee to evacuate, and the claims are being taken very seriously.

Americans evacuated

A US-chartered ship carrying more than 1,000 Americans to safety from Lebanon arrived in the Cypriot port of Larnaca early Thursday.

In the first large American evacuation from Lebanon since the conflict erupted a week ago, the Greek cruise ship Orient Queen sailed from Beirut with 1,059 people on board.

It was the latest in a growing flotilla of evacuee ships being hurriedly assembled by Western governments.

Marine helicopters had flown out small groups of Americans from the US embassy on the outskirts of the Lebanese capital to a British air force base on Cyprus in previous days.

Meanwhile thousands of Lebanese have joined foreigners braving the road to Syria to flee the Israeli bombardments that’s killed more than 290 people in eight days.

Israel attacked Lebanon after Hezbollah fighters seized two Israeli soldiers and killed eight on the 12th of July.

Hezbollah rocket strikes have killed 15 civilians in Israel.

Evacuations set to start

Hundreds have gathered in the uncomfortable and hot conditions, waiting to catch a chartered ferry to Cyprus or Turkey.


It’s hoped that between 500 and 1,000 people will be shipped out later today, with the total rising up to 6,500 by Sunday.

The Department of Foreign Affairs has advised Australians unable to get out of Lebanon today to return and try tomorrow.

Extra defence and diplomatic staff have been sent to Beirut, with 65 defence logistics and medical personnel leaving Sydney on a chartered flight early this morning.

Another 29 diplomatic staff have also been sent into Beirut and locations in Turkey and Cyprus.

No guarantee

Earlier in the day Prime Minister John Howard said he couldn’t guarantee the evacuation – the largest ever moment of Australians overseas – would take place on time.

“I do ask people to understand the challenges involved here,” he told ABC Radio.

“I think the Department of Foreign Affairs has done a remarkable job in very difficult circumstances. And I think some of the criticism is quite unfair and I reject it.”

Australia has already been outbid in its efforts to charter a ship to take thousands of citizens out of the war zone, and Mr Howard said he could give no guarantees against further problems amid the chaos at Beirut port.

“I stress it’s very chaotic,” he said.

“Arrangements have broken down in the past, not only for Australia but for other countries, and there’s no guarantee that won’t happen in the future.

“Suggestions that the Government has abandoned Australian citizens in Lebanon is quite wrong and I totally reject those suggestions.”

Cyprus airlift

The Government is set to begin a major airlift of Australians out of Cyprus, swinging military and commercial planes into action to get thousands of evacuees from Lebanon back home.

Cyprus is struggling to cope with the massive influx of people after thousands fled to the island.

Foreign Minister Alexander Downer is expected to announce plans to mobilise commercial and military aircraft to fly citizens directly home – or to alternative departure points – and then onto Australia.

“In the case of Cyprus, there just isn’t going to be the infrastructure to support all the foreigners arriving there,” said Foreign Affairs Minister Alexander Downer.

“So we are going to have to get people out of Cyprus to hubs, probably in the Middle East and Europe, but we haven’t finalised the details.”

The Government has already diverted a C-130 Hercules from Iraq to help with the operation.

Evacuees may be charged

Evacuees may be charged for part of the estimated A$25m cost of the operation.

While Mr Downer said the issue of cost is still being finalised, the Government’s won’t be charging Australians for their evacuation from Lebanon.

But he said he’s examining the issue about whether it’ll pay for people to be returned from a staging post in Europe or from the Middle East back to Australia.

“We hope to make an announcement about that tomorrow,” he said.

$1million for World War One VC

The medal was purchased by a prominent philanthropic Australian businessman who said he wished to remain anonymous.


But it was later revealed that the mystery bidder was the owner of the Seven Network, Kerry Stokes.

Lot 1078 included seven other medals with a combined value of less than $100,000.

The VC was awarded posthumously to New Zealand-born Australian soldier Captain Alfred Shout and was put up for auction by his grandson, 67-year-old Graham Thomas.

The A$1 million price tag breaks the record of A$595,000 set in 2005 for a medal won by captain Thomas Hardy at Lord Nelson’s victory at Trafalgar in 1805.

The highest price paid previously for a VC was A$575,000 in 2004 for a medal awarded to Sergeant Norman C Jackson, a British Royal Air Force pilot during World War II in 1944.

Auctioneer Tim Goodman, of Bonhams and Goodman auction house, told the crowd there were plans for the medal to soon be on public display.

“I can confirm the buyer is a prominent Australian businessman who is going to work with the RSL to make sure the medals go on display at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra,” Mr Goodman said before Mr Stokes’ identity had been revealed.

Highly decorated

The war memorial holds the other eight VCs awarded to Australians for service at Gallipoli. Capt Shout was mortally wounded at Lone Pine when the last of three grenades he ignited blew up in his face.

He was the most highly decorated Australian soldier to serve during the Battle of Gallipoli in 1915, being awarded the Military Cross for his actions during the botched landing at Anzac Cove in April.

Capt Shout was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions during the Battle of Lone Pine in August that year.

Mr Thomas said his grandfather would have approved of the sale. “He’d probably say ‘you did a bloody good job’,” said Mr Thomas, who planned to celebrate over a beer.

Mr Thomas said his decision to sell the medals, passed to him by his mother, had met with very little criticism.

All up Mr Stokes paid A$1,214,500, including commission and other charges.